Long-haul passenger aircraft do not fly at supersonic speed today.
SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOPWhere diamonds growYu.N. PalyanovThe first experiments on the synthesis of diamond at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR date back to 1979. As a result of many years of research to date at the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy. V.S. Sobolev SB RAS, a unique high-pressure apparatus BARS (Pressless Apparatus Razreznaya Sphere) and a complex of original methods for growing large diamond crystals with specified properties have been created, experimentally substantiated models of the genesis of natural diamonds have been developed.
EVOLUTION AND THE ORIGIN OF LIFEIn the shadow of the dinosaurs. Pedigree of mammalsA.K. AghajanyanMammals are a unique group of living organisms in the history of our planet, whose representatives have mastered the transfer of a significant part of information from generation to generation in a non-genetic way. Since the origin and development of life, this evolutionary trend has been observed constantly in different evolutionary lines of living things. But only in the trunk of mammals did it reach its most vivid and complete expression, eventually giving rise to the “human phenomenon.”
PERSONTarget-RNAAll the information necessary for the development and life of an organism is encoded in its genome. The carrier of genetic information DNA contains information not only about all proteins required by the body, but also about where, when and in what quantity each protein should be synthesized. Biologists call the complex mechanisms of regulation of the work of genes a system of gene expression …
RNA interference. Wedge wedge …E.L. Chernolovskaya”A lot” is not always “good.” For example, when it comes to viral proteins. In this case, stopping the process of protein synthesis is a vital necessity for the infected cell. And she, as an experienced homeopath, begins to cure “like with like” …
We construct ribonucleases. Enzyme scissorsV.N. Silnikov)In the cells of our body – complex “chemical factories” – an endless variety of biochemical reactions are constantly taking place. Moreover, the processes of destruction, destruction of substances that are unnecessary or foreign to the cell are no less important for it than the processes of synthesis. They are carried out, as a rule, with the help of enzymes – natural catalysts of a protein nature …
RNA Interference and Antisense Approach: Competitors or Companions?When RNA interference, unexpectedly for many researchers and doctors interested in effective methods of suppressing the expression of various genes (gene knockout), appeared in the arsenal of experimental techniques, it was considered almost as an alternative to the traditional antisense approach. The discussion was so lively that it prompted the appearance in 2004 of a whole block of materials in the journal “Nature”, which was preceded by the title: “Will RNA interference become a competitor to the antisense approach?”
SOCIETYGreat agingA.V. SidorenkoThe aging of the century has remained the personal lot of every person. However, since the second half of the last century, this process began to concern society, and then – and the entire world community in the person of the UN.The reasons for this attention to aging are that today it has become one of the main processes that determine the structure of population on a global scale and affect not only all spheres of life of modern mankind, but also the life of future generations …
BOOK NEWS”Natural resources of Russia: territorial localization, economic assessments”The book is devoted to the results of research carried out in 2003-2005. on the interdisciplinary integration project of the SB RAS “Natural resources of the anthroposphere: territorial distribution, comparative economic assessments (information value, rent)”
TRAVEL NOTESMongolia: “… the voice of dali wakes up the soul”V.V. Foolov, P.S. Wart… Within the framework of this article, almost no scientific material is given. this is 1984 Moreover, in our notes we use the notes of wonderful travelers who visited Mongolia at different times. Their works can still serve as an excellent guide for everyone who “… the voice given wakes up the soul.”
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In the wake of the Baikal earthquakeV. V. Ruzhich, K. G. Levy, V. A. Sankov, V. S. Imaev, O. K. Masalsky, Yu. A. BerzhinskyOn August 27, 2008, an earthquake occurred on southern Baikal, named Kultuk after one of the villages located in its epicenter. The intensity of seismic vibrations exceeded 7 points there, which is a high indicator for the Siberian region. Scientists continue a thorough instrumental study of the echoes of the past seismic event.
Biologists at the Nobel OlympusOn December 10, 2008, the annual Nobel Prize ceremony will take place in Stockholm. This time, biologists were especially distinguished: they will receive an award not only in physiology and medicine, but also in chemistry.The 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the French scientists Luc Montagnier and Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, who discovered the human immunodeficiency virus, and the German scientist Harald zur Hausen, who identified the link between the papilloma virus and cervical cancer.The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was shared by US scientists Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfi and Roger Tsien. Scientists have been awarded for the discovery and development of methods for using the green fluorescent protein GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein), which has been actively used in biology and medicine for more than 10 years.
Crystal wingsAt the grand opening of the annual Congress on Aeronautics and Astronautics in Darmstadt in September 2008, the Ludwig Prandtl Ring, the highest award of the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics named after M. Lilienthal-Obert. The Novosibirsk physicist Yu. S. Kachanov was awarded a gold ring with rock crystal, on which a flying bird is engraved.
Shnobel-2008The names of the world famous Nobel Prize winners are announced in October. Around the same time, the Ig Nobel Prize, or, as it is called in Russia, the Shnobel Prize, is presented at Harvard University.The prize winners are usually scientists whose research makes their colleagues laugh. Ig Nobel is awarded for “discoveries that are first laughed at and only then thought about.” “Shnobels” are awarded annually since 1991. The most interesting, in our opinion, in 2008 were the prizes in archeology and biology …
“It is my duty to come to the Sobolev conference”On October 6–12, 2008, the International Conference dedicated to the centenary of the birth of an outstanding scientist, Academician Sergei Lvovich Sobolev was held at the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS. More than 400 mathematicians took part in its work …
A new era of surgeryYa.V. NovikovaIn Novosibirsk – for the first time in Russia – transluminal operations were successfully performed, i.e., abdominal operations without standard skin incisions on the abdominal wall. The new method has great advantages not only over conventional surgery, but also over laparoscopy.
Nanotechnology: yesterday, today, tomorrowA. L. AseevThe fashionable word “nanotechnology” today is called a variety of areas of production activity. But they all have one thing in common: ultra-small – no more than a hundred nanometers – the linear dimensions of the objects used. In this sense, mankind has applied nanotechnology since ancient times. For example, in the preparation of cheese, enzyme proteins from ruminant rennet were used. And medieval cathedral stained-glass windows owe their bright colors to ultradispersed (tens of nanometers) metal particles that were formed when glass was melted with the addition of various metal compounds. But still, consciously, humanity began to develop and apply nanotechnology less than a decade ago. Therefore, they can rightfully be called “technologies of the III millennium”.
Nucleic constructorD. V. Pyshny, A. G. Venyaminova, A. N. Sinyakov, M. A. Zenkova, V. V. VlasovNanotechnology is a modern approach to understanding and mastering the properties of a substance, the qualities of which are determined by its submicroscopic structural elements. And the result of their application are materials, amazing in their properties, intricate spatial structures, striking in complexity, contained in a nanoscale, and invisible to the eye, but therefore no less perfect nanomechanisms, capable of performing only feasible operations at the microscopic level.
HISTORY OF SCIENCE: FATE
Academician Khristianovich: Scientist, Engineer, HumanRecognition did not bypass him during his lifetime: Academician S. A. Khristianovich was awarded the highest awards of the Motherland, including the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, six Orders of Lenin, three Stalin and three State prizes, the V. N.E. Zhukovsky. But, perhaps, the most expensive award to the scientist was the recognition of the people with whom he had a chance to meet and work during a long and fruitful life. “Genius”, “Great Mechanic”, “Legendary Man” – this is what his contemporaries called him … Thanks to the tremendous work done by the authors and compilers of anniversary books, today we can acquaint our readers with the life and work of the scientist, using fragments from published memoirs , comments, as well as the autobiography of the “Great mechanic of the XX century”
Sobolev from the Euler schoolS. S. KutateladzeTo the 100th anniversary of the birth of Sergei Lvovich Sobolev, a representative of the Russian mathematical school, included in the list of scientists whose work has created the main intellectual treasures of world culture.
MUSEUMS & COLLECTIONS
“Leonhard Euler”. Based on materials from the St. Petersburg Branch of the RAS ArchiveN. P. KopanevaThe title of the article contains the name of the great mathematician Leonard Euler. Writing “Leonard Euler” is not a mistake: this is how this Swiss, who lived almost half of his life in Russia, signed his letters when he wrote them in Russian …
Franklin’s gift to Catherine IIN. A. KopanevIn the fall of 1779, alarming news came to St. Petersburg from the Irkutsk Governor-General FN Klitschka about the appearance of “unrecognized” foreign ships in the Chukotka region. It was about the ships of the third expedition (1776–1780) of James Cook, which returned after the death of their captain from the Hawaiian Islands. The Russian court took this information with complete seriousness, which is not surprising: by the will of historical development, Russia entered into direct contact and confrontation with the most powerful sea power of that time – England …
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SCIENCE NEWSUnsleeping undergroundTo find out another secret of nature hidden in the deep holes of an underground rodent, scientists armed themselves not with a shovel, but with the achievement of high technology – a miniature implantable storage sensor that measures body temperature …Siberian nanoforumThe 15th Annual International Symposium on Nanostructures, timed to coincide with the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, took place on June 25-29, 2007 in the Novosibirsk Academgorodok …
FATEOIL: heroes not of our timeThe share of Siberia in oil production today is about 70%, coal – over 70%, gas – over 90%! The unique Siberian reserves of the most important natural energy carriers will remain the main energy base of Russia for many decades.A.A. Trofimuk: “Siberia floats on oil”Until recently, it was believed that until 2050 we would not feel a shortage of natural resources, oil and gas. However, as time goes on, scientists are becoming more ruthless in their predictions.Farman Salmanov: “Let us be united by love for our Motherland – Russia”A.E. KontorovichSalmanov Farman Kurban-oglu made a huge contribution to the discovery and development of the West Siberian oil and gas province. Neither Russian nor world history knows any other geologist who so effectively participated in the discovery of giant and large oil and gas fields.
PERSONWho needs a tick-borne encephalitis prognosis? Results of 27-year monitoring of the natural epidemiological focusM.P. Moshkin, V.N. Bakhvalova, E.A. NovikovIn June 2007, the chief sanitary doctor of Russia G. Onishchenko announced the beginning of the most severe tick-borne encephalitis epidemic in our country over the past five years. The situation is complicated by the fact that the majority of regional authorities did not take care of the necessary supply of immunoglobulin in advance, which is practically the only specific drug against this truly deadly viral disease.Tick-borne borreliosis: a disease for life?N.V. FomenkoIn Russia, borreliosis (or Lyme disease, as it is called in the United States) was first detected in 1985, but it was only in 1991 that ixodic tick-borne borreliosis (ICB) was included in the official state list of diseases registered in Russia.The silent killer of atherosclerosis. From theory to practiceG.I. LifshitsCardiovascular diseases are rightly called the epidemic of the 20th century: over the past decades, they have become the main reason for the increase in mortality rates in industrialized countries, including Russia, where about 1 million 200 thousand people die from them every year.
HYPOTHESES AND FACTSEnd of Spaceship EarthK. Bunama, W. von Bloch, Z. FrankToday we are concerned about global warming caused by human activity, which in the coming decades or centuries could significantly change the earth’s climate. And although all possible catastrophic scenarios of this process are terrifying, the worst of them pales in comparison with what awaits the Earth in just a few billion years …
SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOPAt the speed of soundV.M. Fomin, S.M. Aulchenko, A.F. LatypovLong-haul passenger aircraft do not fly at supersonic speed today. As it turned out, the “supersonic” projects TU-144 and Concorde turned out to be economically unprofitable. The first attempt to overcome the sound barrier for peaceful purposes was unsuccessful, since when approaching the sound barrier, the drag of the aircraft sharply increases and the lift decreases. So, there is no “supersonic”, but what is there? There is a “trans sound”.
FACULTYHow a cell repairs DNAC.N. Khodyreva, O.I. LavrikAll the information that living cells store and transmit by inheritance is carried by DNA molecules, which are a kind of encrypted genetic “texts”. The cell carefully monitors the state of its treasures: DNA is the only molecule that, when damaged, the cell “repairs” or, as they say, “repaires” – molecules of all other types are synthesized anew.
HISTORY AND MODERNITYOriental gamblingE.E. Voytishek, S.A. KomissarovYou walk along the evening streets of our cities and seem to plunge into a flashing flood of light signs of various gaming clubs and casinos. Only a few years have passed since the beginning of changes in the country – and such establishments have become an indispensable attribute of almost every settlement – gambling addiction, perhaps, can be called a social disease of our time, along with alcoholism and drug addiction. In the East, for centuries, people indulged in gambling with no less, if not more, passion than in the West …First ladies. Siberian province of the 19th centuryN.P. Matkhanova, N.N. AlexandrovaThe study of the history of women (the so-called women’s studies) as a separate area of humanitarian knowledge emerged in Western Europe and America in the late 1960s – early 1970s.